Description and characteristics of the breed of Yakut cows, the rules for their maintenance

Description and characteristics of the breed of Yakut cows, the rules for their maintenance


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

The Yakut miniature cow is not like other representatives of the horned tribe. The humpbacked baby has remarkable strength and agility. Due to the fault of unlucky breeders, the breed almost disappeared from the face of the earth, but with the help of livestock breeders, some of the cows were saved. Few people know that Yakuts are producers of nutritious milk and delicious marbled meat.

How did the breed appear

The Yakut cows inherited their colorful appearance from their ancestors - Indian zebu. The kinship with exotic animals is evidenced by the slight hunchback and the unusual structure of the animal's coat. The first representatives of the Yakut breed appeared on the territory of the Sakha Republic. By the middle of the 18th century, experts identified the distinctive features and qualities of the breed. The main advantages of animals were recognized as the ability of pets to endure severe frosts and simplicity in food.

Over the decades, the breed has evolved without undergoing changes. In the 20s of the last century, unpretentious pets were crossed with cows of the Kholmogory and Simmental breeds. Experiments led to the disappearance of shaggy cows. Experts tried to revive the breed, but failed to correct the situation. Today, animals can be seen only in individual private farms and in the Novosibirsk Research Institute of Agriculture Nursery.

Description and characteristics of Yakut cows

Representatives of the Yakut breed belong to the meat and dairy species of cattle, however, in many respects they differ from their relatives. Yakuts love to make dizzying jumps, which allows them to overcome various obstacles on the way to fresh grass.

Burenki tolerate frosts without any problems, but they negatively perceive rains. Pets become attached to their owners and take care of them gratefully. Animals practically do not get sick and in most cases bring healthy calves. General signs of the Yakut breed:

  1. Yakut is one of the shortest cows. The growth of the largest individual barely reaches 120 cm.
  2. The maximum weight of bulls reaches 500 kg. The average cow weighs 340 kg.
  3. A small, well-knit body and short powerful legs testify to the unpretentiousness and strength of the pet. The picture is somewhat spoiled by a humped back and an undeveloped, hanging backside.
  4. The cow's fleshy wide neck is crowned with a small head. In bulls, the skin on the neck is gathered in folds.
  5. The head of the animal is decorated with straight, slightly curved horns.
  6. Thick thick skin and long hair are designed to protect the cow from frost and annoying insects.
  7. Among animals, there are individuals painted in white, black or red shades. Spotted cows are often seen.

Miniature cows are extremely shaggy. The hair of animals is 2-3 times thicker than the wool of ordinary cows. With the onset of frost, the strands grow back quickly, becoming 5-6 times longer. Luxurious curly fur coat helps pets survive the fierce winter.

With the onset of steady heat, cows shed, shedding long strands of wool. The life expectancy of pets is 15-19 years.

You should not expect amazing milk yields from the Yakut. For a year, an unpretentious cow gives a little more than 1500 liters. This figure is 3 times lower than that of other cows. Modest milk yield is more than compensated by the quality of milk. The fat content of the product is 5-9%, and in terms of the content of vitamins, it is a real record holder. Milk has a sweetish taste and is excellent for making butter, sour cream and other fermented milk products.

Yakut cows are known as suppliers of special marbled meat. It is famous not only for its exquisite taste and aroma, but also for the presence of substances that prevent the accumulation of cholesterol and carcinogens. The delicate pink flesh of the product is dotted with thin layers of fat. Today, the task of livestock breeders is to save the few surviving representatives of the breed, so cattle are slaughtered extremely rarely.

Pros and cons of animals

Yakut babies do not require complex care, however, some of the nuances of these animals must be taken into account.

The pickyness of cows to housing conditions and nutrition.

The extraordinary ability of animals to acclimatize. Cows withstand severe winters perfectly.

The modest dimensions of the cows allow you to save on feed and barn area.

Excellent quality of meat and milk of cows. Cow performance is not affected by changes in weather or housing conditions.

Strong immunity reliably protects pets from colds or infections.

Burenki quickly gain weight.

Animals are distinguished by a peaceful, docile disposition. Animals that have recently given birth are an exception. Some cows only let their owners in when the calf is present. The baby is applied to the mother's udder before and at the end of the milking procedure.

Thanks to their thick skin and dense hair, the pets are resistant to insect bites.

In winter, the udder of the animal is densely overgrown with long hair, so it is difficult to use the milking machine. Gear glasses cannot grip the little nipples of the cow. The cow has to be milked manually, which means that the effectiveness of the procedure is reduced.

The cost of calves of the Yakut breed is several times higher than the prices for animals of other meat and dairy breeds.

Horned babies have a fondness for high jumps. This cute feature becomes a problem for the owners of pregnant cows. Farmers have to surround the pens with high (at least 1.5 m) walls.

Pets do not tolerate artificial insemination, preferring the services of a breeding bull.

How to maintain and care for the breed

Nature has taken care of the survival of Yakut cows in a harsh winter. Thanks to the fat layer, dense skin and long wavy coat, cows can sleep right in the snow. They are not afraid of 50-degree frosts and gusts of icy wind, therefore, it is not worth building a capital warm cowshed for cows.

A place for summer walking

In the warm season, cows are content with fresh grass, tree branches, last year's hay and even bark. Due to the special structure of the intestines, animals are able to digest rough food. Before sending livestock to free grazing, the place for summer walking of animals is scrupulously inspected, removing sharp-angled stones, sticks and dead wood from the ground. If left to chance, horned pets risk injuring their eyes or the delicate skin of the udder.

Expert opinion

Zarechny Maxim Valerievich

Agronomist with 12 years of experience. Our best summer cottage expert.

For cows, abandoned wells or deep ditches are a great danger. Broken wires on power lines are often the culprit.

Do not drive your cows to pasture sown with legumes, colza or rapeseed. Pets like this food, but when overeating, animals suffer from bloating. It is undesirable to release cows on fields sown with cabbage or potatoes. On the territory of the pasture, sheds are installed to protect pets from rain and scorching sun. Special feeders and drinkers are installed under the sheds.

How to equip a barn

Animals do not need a warm room, an exception is made only for cows during the calving period. A khoton is built for pets - this is how the name of the barn sounds in the local language. Hothon is equipped with hanging feeders for hay and green forage. Wet food is served to cows in troughs or shallow wide buckets. Ideally, the trough should be trapezoidal.

Animals sleep without problems in snowdrifts, so the floors in the barn are made of any cold material, except metal. To create a comfortable environment, the barn floor can be covered with a light layer of hay and straw.

Content rules

Cows thrive in the fresh air. All year round they live in open pastures, without the need for a room. Special feeders and drinkers are placed under the shelter. The cows that have given birth are kept together with the calves in a light building. In any weather, cows and calves are regularly walked.

How to clean the barn

Feeders and drinkers are constantly washed. The remnants of the old feed are replaced with fresh products. If there is litter on the floor, the floor is changed as needed or thinned with fresh straw. If the barn floor is made of planks, the material is renewed every 4 years.

Diet

Yakut animals have long been accustomed to be content with pasture, but in winter their diet consists of additional products.

In the summer

In summer, the main food for pets is lush meadow grass and tree twigs. If the vegetation on the pasture is scarce, the milk yield and fat content of milk in cows decrease. In this case, the pet diet is supplemented with compound feed and nutritious root crops.

In winter

In winter, the daily diet of cows consists of 6 kg of hay, 1 kg of root crops (carrots, beets) and 300 g of compound feed. The drinker is constantly filled with clean water.

Breeding

Yakut burenki are fertile and bear childbirth without any problems. The cow's restless behavior indicates that the time of calving is approaching. The animal hums plaintively, continually lies down and immediately gets up. Before calving, it is necessary to clean the room and change the bedding. The genitals of the woman in labor are treated with a solution of potassium permanganate.

The labor period lasts 30-40 minutes. The newborn calf is cleaned of birth secretions and mucus, the umbilical cord cutting site is treated with iodine and returned to the mother. After calving, the cow is washed with warm soapy water and wiped dry with a cloth. The bedding in the stall is changed again.

Calves are born healthy and after 1.5 months the baby is transferred to a separate apartment. The average weight of newborn babies is 20 kg. Thanks to nutritious mother's milk, calves gain 800 g of weight daily. Yakut cows feed the offspring up to 8 months, and then the young are transferred to roughage. By the age of 1.5 years, animals fatten up to 300 kg of weight.

Is it worth buying

Despite the high cost of calves and difficulties with delivery, the purchase of Yakut cows is a profitable venture. Unpretentious cows will fully recoup the investment, and with proper breeding, they will bring considerable income to the owners.

The small size of the cows makes it possible to breed livestock even in a limited area of ​​a small farm.

Diseases

Thanks to strong immunity and high hemoglobin levels, cows do not get sick with leukemia, brucellosis and other common diseases.


Watch the video: Jersey cow. Breed Characteristics. Dairy Farming in Pakistan