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For the transportation of goods, the peasants needed strong and hardy horses. Among these, the Vladimir heavy draft horse breed can be distinguished, which has spread throughout Russia, earning recognition from people engaged in agriculture. Practical use of the horse, its unique qualities made it the first assistant of the peasant.
The creation of a heavy-harness horse was necessary at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. It was impossible to develop agro-industrial production without hardy horses capable of carrying heavy loads. I had to use the genes of the Percherons, English Shires and Scottish Clydesdals imported from France to breed my own breed. Strong and fast-paced working stallions of the Clydesdale breed were most often used to build heavy trucks.
By crossing with local Vladimir filly we got the right breed of horse. But it took several decades to breed purebred stallions.
The heavy draft horse was registered in the State Register only in 1946.
Description and characteristics of the horse vladimir heavy draft
There are several ways to define a purebred stallion. The Vladimir heavy draft horse has characteristics that were awarded to it by local horses when crossed with foreign genetic material. The breed is prized for its large size. Nowhere else can you find such a massive and at the same time energetic horse.
The Vladimir heavy truck is considered one of the most peaceful and good-natured animals. Horses feel comfortable amid the bustle of the city and in rural seclusion. Balance and calmness are the hallmarks of their disposition. Thoroughbred horses are used for trips with children, to whom they are friendly, affectionate. A child can walk up to a horse, pet it, feed it. In this case, the heavy truck will behave calmly.
Strong and resilient horses are capable of performing any hard work without showing obstinacy. They quickly get used to the commands, they follow them without question.
Striking in the breed the Vladimir heavy truck is the appearance of individuals with:
- height at the withers from 170 centimeters;
- chest width up to 2 meters;
- body length 175 centimeters;
- weight from 700 kilograms to 1 ton;
- long muscular neck;
- large cranium;
- well-positioned strong limbs.
Heavy-duty horses have a thick mane and tail, and a chestnut or red coat is short. A characteristic feature of the breed is the presence of white fluffy stockings on the legs of the horses. White markings are found on the horse's face, rump, belly.
Productive qualities of horses
The best qualities of this type of domestic animals are embodied in the breed of Vladimir heavy-harness horses. The strength of the bones of the front and hind limbs, wide hooves, the strength of the chest allow horses to perform difficult work. In 5 minutes, a heavy truck can carry 1.5 tons of cargo over a distance of 2 kilometers. At the same time, the horse does not feel tired, energetic.
You can also use horses for riding. They look graceful and sophisticated. Hardy representatives of the breed were able to overcome the distance from Moscow to Vladivostok.
Pros and cons of the breed
The advantages of the heavy-harness Vladimir horse are recognized all over the world. Animals combine universal qualities associated with:
- maximum endurance, strength;
- calm, docile character;
- high efficiency;
- the duration of the exploitation of individuals.
Despite its large size, the horse looks like a beautiful, graceful individual. At the same time, the knight's move is quick and easy. He can compete with race breeds. One of the disadvantages of a heavy truck is that it has a soft back as a result of a shallow deflection of the hull. Flat ribs prevent the horse from making the most of his lungs when working.
The quality of horses is improved if appropriate housing conditions are organized for them. Horse breeders give preference to Vladimir horses, appreciating their versatility, unpretentious care, the ability to adapt to any conditions of existence.
But a comfortable life and proper nutrition make pets more resilient. Moreover, they serve up to 20 years.
They build premises for horses in the form of a stall, where each individual has a separate living space. But the downside of the building is the lack of communication with other horses. The stall, where all the livestock of heavy trucks can be accommodated, gives the animals the opportunity to communicate with each other. But it is easy to get an infection in a common room, and sanitation rules are more difficult to follow.
When arranging stables, they observe the norm, leaving 5 square meters of premises for each horse. Stall lighting and regular airing play an important role in keeping the breed. The walls are built of wood, and the floor is better concreted. But there must be a drain to remove excess liquid. Cover the floor with sawdust, covering the top with straw or hay. Cleaning is carried out daily, changing the flooring. The air temperature in winter is maintained at + 8-10 degrees. Stables should have a feeding area with feeders and drinkers. Containers are chosen without sharp corners.
Heavy trucks should be looked after regularly. This includes hygiene procedures, preventive examinations of the condition of hooves, wool, teeth. Once every six months, you need to call a veterinarian so that he examines for pathological problems. The stable is cleaned daily, which includes:
- cleaning the premises from manure and taking it out of the stable territory;
- separation of wet litter with a pitchfork and replacing it with a clean, dry one;
- cleaning and washing of feeders and drinkers;
- dusting the floor with dry sawdust.
Before cleaning the stables, the animals are taken out into the fresh air. The room must be ventilated before the horses are put there. At the same time, do not forget about air temperature control.
The health of a heavy draft breed depends on the cleanliness of the coat and hooves of the animal. It is necessary to comb the horse's mane and tail daily. A special comb is used for the procedures, moving along the course of hair growth. Spraying with a special spray will help eliminate confusion.
Horses' legs are washed daily with warm water, and the entire body is washed once every 7 days. With a hook they pull out pebbles and dirt stuck there from the hooves. The hooves are examined, revealing cracks, wounds, treating them with ointment or disinfectant solutions. Affects the health of the pet and the condition of the teeth. They must be treated promptly.
Feed and water
For adult horses of the heavy Vladimir breed, oats (bucket), 15-18 kilograms of hay, bran - up to 2 kilograms, carrots - 5 must be prepared and given daily. The diet of thoroughbred horses should contain fruits and vegetables. Salt briquettes are constantly being renewed in the stable.
Meals are organized 3 times, and for workhorses every 2 hours. Animals are not denied access to the hay. Chewing dry grass constantly helps to prevent the development of stomach ulcers. Heavy trucks must not be left without water. Clean water is poured into the drinkers so that the horses can get plenty of drink before feeding.
Horse breeders are breeding a heavy draft breed in order to use the horse as a draft force. The horse is not good for meat. Milk can be obtained from mares, but for this they are kept on special fattening.
The peculiarity of horses is that they need physical activity. They cannot be kept in the pen all the time.
High fertility of thoroughbred mares. The beauty of the horses' exterior draws attention to the Vladimir heavy draft truck. These horses are rarely used for their intended purpose. Many vehicles have been created for the transportation of heavy loads, so the services of a heavy-duty animal are not needed. But the breeding of the breed continues. Beautiful horses are used in the tourism business.
Strong and resilient heavy trucks rarely get sick, but they have skin problems such as:
- Ringworm. A pathogenic fungus enters the wound on the skin, and then bald spots appear, which flake and itch. The sick individual is isolated, the spots are treated with iodine. It is necessary to put down injections that the veterinarian will prescribe.
- Scabies. One of the symptoms of the disease is severe itching that torments the horses. After scratching, wounds and ulcers are formed. They are dangerous because they can get pathogenic microorganisms. Lubricate the affected areas with a solution of benzibenzoate.
- Dermatitis. Symptoms of the disease are manifested by peeling of the skin, cracks on it, and hair loss. Most often, dermatitis is a consequence of allergies to pollen, food, chemicals.
- Mokrets. Mud fever bacteria infect animals during wet summers. The legs of the horses are covered with scabs, then the flaky areas pass to the stomach. It is necessary to treat biting midge by washing the affected areas, smearing the spots with petroleum jelly, ointments. Antibiotics will also help.
The development of diseases of a heavy draft can be prevented by observing the rules for keeping horses.
Field of activity
The use of the Vladimir heavy truck continues, although the number of individuals has decreased in recent years. In subsidiary plots, such a horse is needed to replace the tractor. It will bring joy to both adults and children.
The demand for animals in the tourism business has increased. In equestrian tourism, heavy trucks are successfully used. Horses are calm, friendly, they can easily overcome climbs and long transitions. In city parks and attractions, beautiful horses are needed. They are harnessed to carriages where passengers sit. But for its intended purpose, the Vladimir heavy truck is rarely used.