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Sweet cherry varieties Napoleon gained fame in Russia more than 100 years ago. It is grown mainly in the southern regions. Garden culture is valued for its high taste and keeping quality of large fruits, sustainable fruiting. When cultivated in appropriate climatic zones, it takes root well, does not require special care during dry periods.
How the variety is bred
The origin of the Napoleon variety is Western Europe, late 18th, early 19th centuries. Country of selection - France.
Sweet cherry Napoleon is a mid-season, large-fruited variety. Grown in sun-warmed areas with structured, nutritious soil. Damp, cool weather leads to a decrease in yield, damage by pathogens.
The trees are tall, with a dense crown in the form of a ball. Flowering - in late spring, fruiting - for 4-5 years, in early summer. The variety Napoleon is self-fertile. Has 2 subspecies: black Napoleon cherry, pink Napoleon. Differences also concern the shape and size of the fruit.
Sweet cherry Napoleon withstands a short-term drop in temperature to -30 degrees, provided that the trunk and root zone are covered. Deep roots allow for long dry periods. Late flowering excludes the influence of recurrent frosts on the ovaries. Blooming trees serve as a decoration of the personal plot.
Prolonged low temperatures cause death of Napoleon's flower buds, frost. For cross-pollination on the site, it is necessary to plant other varieties of cherries. Does not withstand proximity of closer than 5 meters with an apple, pear, plum. Napoleon pink adapts less well in cool and rainy summers, which is why it is not very widespread
There is a growth bud on the bouquet branches in the center, flowering buds on the sides.
Leaf and flower
Cherry leaves are large, dark green, elongated, with a pointed tip. White buds are collected in inflorescences of 3 flowers on bouquet branches.
Sweet cherries Napoleon - oval or round, medium or above average, juicy.
Black fruit - from 6 to 6.5 grams, pink - up to 9-10 grams.
Cherry Napoleon black - 1.8 centimeters; Napoleon pink - 2.0 centimeters.
Black berry - 2.0 centimeters, pink - 2.2 centimeters.
Napoleon black - 2.2 centimeters, Napoleon pink - 2.4 centimeters.
In the mature stage, the color of the fruit is dark red and bright pink. The ovary of Napoleon pink is pink-yellow, in black it is red.
Long, thin, well fixed.
The stone is medium, slightly narrowed, easily separating from the pulp.
The berries are attractive. They are used fresh and for conservation.
The fruits are sweet when ripe. In an immature state, the pink-yellow fruits have a bitter taste.
Content of nutrients
In 100 grams of sweet cherries, Napoleon has a high content:
- vitamins C and E;
In addition, there are:
- vitamins A, B, P;
Nutrition with cherries can provide a balanced intake of vitamins, micro- and macroelements.
Tree height and growth rate
The height of the crown of the sweet cherry Napoleon reaches 6.5 meters. The annual growth of shoots is 70-80 centimeters.
Flowering and ripening period
The buds bloom at the end of May. Berry picking starts after 3 weeks and ends at the end of June.
The average yield of Napoleon is up to 30 kilograms.
Napoleon fruits have a dense pulp and skin, which ensures keeping quality and transportation over long distances.
In the Napoleon cherry, after 3-4 years, a powerful root system develops, providing the tree with moisture. Watering is needed for young seedlings and adult plants during flowering and fruit pouring.
Fruit trees tolerate a drop in air temperature to -30 degrees.
Sweet cherry Napoleon is susceptible to pathogenic lesions at high humidity and temperatures below 0 degrees.
Taste qualities, composition of nutrients, properties of pulp and skin make it possible to use Napoleon cherry fruits not only fresh.
Summer and canned compotes, juices are prepared from Napoleon cherries. Preserves and jams are obtained from a mixture of cherries with cherries, black currants.
Low-calorie sweet cherries: 50 kilocalories - 100 grams. The consumption of fruits provides saturation and at the same time reduces the energy intensity of food. If you want to lose weight, the cherry diet is the best way.
In folk medicine
Fresh fruits have a beneficial effect on the intestinal tract. The high potassium content is good for the heart muscle. Vitamin C helps restore hemoglobin levels.
Illuminating and nourishing masks made from crushed fruits are useful for the skin of the face and décolleté.
Basic soil requirements
Sweet cherries require loose and fertile soil: black soil, loam, sandy loam.
The pit is prepared in advance: in the fall, regardless of the planting date. At the bottom, 20 centimeters of expanded clay / fine gravel is poured, half the norm of the nutrient substrate. The procedure is necessary to improve the drainage properties and soil shrinkage, so as not to damage the small roots.
Sweet cherry Napoleon is grown on rootstocks of cherries, wild cherries, which are frost-resistant, resistant to diseases and pests. This method allows you to cultivate a light, heat-loving plant in more severe climatic conditions.
When choosing a seedling, you need to pay attention to the upper part (cherry stem) and the lower part (rootstock).
The roots of the stock should be branched and not damaged.
The bark of the tree should be shiny, tight-fitting, without breaking the integrity.
Sweet cherries are planted in a permanent place at the age of 1-2 years.
The vaccination site should be inconspicuous, dry.
Planting dates depend on climatic conditions: in autumn or spring. Each case has its own pros and cons.
In regions with long, warm autumn, a cherry seedling is planted 14-20 days before the onset of a cold snap. This time is enough for the root system to take root.
The root system has time to take root. In the spring, the plant will begin to develop in a new location.
Underdeveloped roots can freeze under severe frosts and in a shelter. The seedling is generally weakened: in winter, the buds and bark can be damaged.
With a sharp change in the seasons, the trees are planted in the spring, before the buds swell on the trees.
Sweet cherry will not suffer from winter cold.
The development of the seedling is slowed down compared to the autumn planting. It will take about a month for a plant to adapt to a new location.
Sweet cherry Napoleon must be grown in sunny areas protected from cold winds, without stagnant groundwater.
The size of the landing pit: depth - 70 centimeters, diameter - 60 centimeters.
At the bottom, poured ½ of the nutrient substrate, which is prepared:
- from 2 glasses of ash;
- 2 buckets of humus;
- 2 buckets of fertile land.
Further manipulations with the seedling are carried out after 20 days (when planting in the fall) or in the spring.
The remaining part is poured onto the previously poured and settled substrate, making a cone out of it. The tree is placed vertically in the planting hole. Holding the trunk, the roots are straightened over the filled soil. Further actions consist in the gradual filling of the planting pit with soil and its compaction.
The root collar should be just above ground level. A trunk circle is made, poured abundantly with warm water, mulched with hay or straw.
Sweet cherry Napoleon needs pollinators, as it is self-fertile. The best varieties for cross-pollination are other cherry varieties.
The variety is fruitful, resistant to low temperatures and fungal infection. The fruits are large, dark red, sweet and sour.
Cherry variety recently bred by Italian breeders. Fruit weight reaches 12 grams. Productivity - up to 45 kilograms.
Cherry is resistant to adverse weather conditions, fungal spore infection. The berries are round, dark red, 12-16 grams.
Dessert variety. Fruits are yellow, up to 8 grams. Cherry tolerates drought well, is affected by cherry fly, gray rot.
A versatile, early maturing, high-yielding variety, resistant to moniliosis. Included in the State Register in 1974. Fruits are dark red, sweet and sour, up to 8 grams.
Fruits are sweet and sour, up to 5 grams, they begin to ripen at the end of May. The tree is susceptible to frost and pest damage.
Dessert variety, developed in France. Early ripe. It is frost-resistant, resistant to pests. Fruits are medium in size, dark red, loose, sweet.
Early maturing variety. Fruits - up to 3 grams, sour, not decaying. A mature tree does not exceed 3 meters, has a non-spreading, pyramidal crown.
Sweet cherry Napoleon needs a full range of agricultural techniques. Without their fulfillment, the tree will reduce yields, it will hurt.
An adult tree with roots up to 4 meters deep requires watering in early June, when ovaries begin to form. In dry, hot summer, cherries are watered once a month and in autumn - after the leaves fall.
Young trees are watered regularly: in dry season - once every 5-7 days. With sufficient precipitation - at the end of flowering. Water consumption rate: 50 liters per seedling, 100 liters per mature tree.
Feeding cherries is necessary in spring and summer. With the awakening of the buds, the plant is watered with a diluted solution of a mullein (1:10) at the rate of 5 liters. During flowering, potash and phosphorus fertilizers are applied to the trunk circle (45 grams per square meter).
For 5-6 years, cherries form a multi-tiered crown:
- the distance between the tiers is 50 centimeters;
- the number of skeletal branches on a tier - 3-4;
- the height of the central conductor is 3-3.5 meters.
Pruning is carried out in the spring (in March) or in the fall (in October). This removes all branches growing inside the crown, tops, dry, broken, with signs of damage. Removal of large branches is carried out on the ring. So that the crown does not grow in breadth, the branches are cut to a side branch.
Preparing for winter
In dry autumn, water-charging irrigation is carried out. All mummified, dried fruits are removed from the branches. Fallen leaves are removed from the trunk circle. The ground under the tree is dug to a depth of 30 centimeters. The lower part of the trunk and the root part are covered with spruce branches from frost, with a net - from mice and hares.
Diseases and pests, their prevention
Timely pruning, watering and preventive treatment of the trunk, branches, ovaries allow you to avoid infection with pathogens and prevent the attack of pests.
Resistant to fungus
Napoleon pink and black are not as susceptible to infection by the marsupial fungus (coccomycosis) and the ascomycete fungus (moniliosis), as other varieties of sweet cherries. The risk of injury arises under certain weather conditions.
High immunity to disease
Despite the low susceptibility to mycotic infection, it is necessary to carry out preventive measures that reduce the spore potential of fungi. The best way is fungicide treatment.
Fungicide of protective-contact action against fungal infection. The first spraying is carried out before the beginning of budding, the second - after the end of flowering. In adverse weather conditions, spraying can be carried out up to 6 times per season.
Bordeaux liquid is a copper-containing preparation. The properties and method of application are the same for products containing copper oxychloride.
The insect is the main pest of stone fruits of the middle and late ripening period. It lays eggs in a cherry ovary, from which larvae are rejected, eating the pulp of the fruit.
Contact action insecticide against sucking and gnawing pests. Does not penetrate into fruits, retains its effect for a month after spraying.
Strong enteric poison; effective against most garden pests. Requires special care when using. Spray the cherries once, after the ovaries have formed.
Cherry aphids attack the green branches and leaves of the tree, feeding on their sap. Systemic pest control consists in the removal of weeds, ants, and chemical treatment.
The insect lays eggs on the underside of the leaf in May-June, late July. Slime sawfly larvae destroy cherry leaves. Pupation occurs in the near-trunk circle. Control methods: biological, chemical, manual collection of larvae.
Infection with gray rot spores occurs at the beginning of flowering, at low temperatures or high humidity. Treatment of the tree with fungicides is carried out before flowering.
Applying a lime solution to the trunk is one of the ways to protect against pests and parasites, as well as against sunburn.
Wrapping the trunk
Covering the lower part of the trunk with a net, roofing felt, spruce branches is necessary to protect it from frost and rodents.
For young cherries, mulching of the trunk circle is important in hot, dry summers.
Insulation of the crown of seedlings
The cultivation of sweet cherries Napoleon in the northern regions is associated with the risk of freezing and death of the tree. The crown of a young tree is covered from the cold with sackcloth stuffed with hay, fixed on the trunk.
Before bud break, the cherry is sprayed with a fungicide. They dig up the earth near the trunk circle.
Barrel circle care
During the entire growing season, it is necessary to weed out the weeds in the radius of the cherry tree crown and loosen the soil. Autumn and spring digging is necessary for the destruction of wintering pests and fertilization.
Harvesting and storage
The sweet cherry is removed together with the stalk. Store in a shallow, spacious container in a cool place. The berries retain their presentation and taste for 2 weeks.